# RISC-V RV32I Instructions

## Integer instructions

### Register-immediate; I type

For I type integer register-immediate instructions, $$\mathrm{opcode} = 0010011_2$$.

• MV assembler pseudo-instruction is implemented in terms of ADDI. I.e., mv rd, rs is actually addi rd, rs, 0.

• NOP assembler psuedo-instruction is implemted in terms of ADDI. I.e., nop is actually addi x0, x0, 0.

I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 000_2$$

SLTI

Set less than immediate. If rs1 is less than the immediate value, set rd to 1. Otherwise, rd is set to 0. The values are compared as signed numbers.

I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 010_2$$

SLTIU

Set less than immediate, unsigned. Same as SLTI, except values are compared as unsigned numbers. The immediate value is still sign-extended.

• SEQZ assembler pseudo-instruction is implemented in terms of SLTIU. I.e., seqz rd, rs is actually sltiu rd, rs, 1.

I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 011_2$$

ANDI

Bitwise AND.

I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 111_2$$

ORI

Bitwise OR.

I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 110_2$$

XORI

Bitwise XOR.

• NOT assembler pseudo-instruction is implemented in terms of XORI. I.e., not rd, rs is actually xori rd, rs, -1.

I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 100_2$$

SLLI

Logical left shift. The shift amount is encoded in the immediate value, but the entire immediate value is not the shift amount. The shift amount is in the lower 5 bits of the immediate value. The rest of the immediate value encodes the type of shift.

0000000 encodes logical shift.

Specialized I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 001_2$$

SRLI

Logical right shift. Immediate value encoding is the same as SLLI.

Specialized I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 101_2$$

SRAI

Arithmetic right shift. Immediate value encoding is similar to SLLI.

0100000 encodes arithmetic shift.

Specialized I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 101_2$$

### Register-immediate; U type

LUI

U type; opcode $$\mathrm{opcode} = 0110111_2$$

AUIPC

Add upper immediate and pc.

U type; $$\mathrm{opcode} = 0010111_2$$

### Register-register

For R type integer register-register instructions, $$\mathrm{opcode} = 0110011_2$$.

Addition; rs1 + rs2.

R type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 000_2$$; $$\mathrm{funct7} = 0000000_2$$

SUB

Subtraction; rs1 - rs2.

R type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 000_2$$; $$\mathrm{funct7} = 0100000_2$$

SLT

Signed compare. Set rd to 1 if rs1 < rs2, otherwise set to 0.

R type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 010_2$$; $$\mathrm{funct7} = 0000000_2$$

SLTU

Unsigned compare. Set rd to 1 if rs1 < rs2, otherwise set to 0.

• SNEZ assembler psuedo-instruction is implemented in terms of SLU. I.e., snez rd, rs is actually slu rd, x0, rs.

R type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 011_2$$; $$\mathrm{funct7} = 0000000_2$$

AND

Bitwise AND.

R type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 111_2;$$ $$\mathrm{funct7} = 0000000_2$$

OR

Bitwise OR.

R type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 110_2$$; $$\mathrm{funct7} = 0000000_2$$

XOR

Bitwise XOR.

R type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 100_2$$; $$\mathrm{funct7} = 0000000_2$$

SLL

Logical left shift. Shifts rs1 by shift amount held in lower 5 bits of rs2.

R type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 001_2$$; $$\mathrm{funct7} = 0000000_2$$

SRL

Logical right shift. Shifts rs1 by shift amount held in lower 5 bits of rs2.

R type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 101_2$$; $$\mathrm{funct7} = 0000000_2$$

SRA

Arithmetic right shift. Shifts rs1 by shift amount held in lower 5 bits of rs2.

R type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 101_2$$; $$\mathrm{funct7} = 0100000_2$$

## Control instructions; J type

JAL

Jump and link. Adds offset to address of instruction to obtain jump target address. Stores address of instruction after jump instruction in rd.

• J assmbler pseudo-instruction is implemented in terms of JAL. I.e., j n is actually jal x0, n.

J type; $$\mathrm{opcode} = 1101111_2$$

JALR

Indirect jump, or jump and link register. Adds offset to rs1 to obtain jump target address, sets least significant bit to zero. Stores address of instruction after jump instruction in rd.

I type; $$\mathrm{opcode} = 1100111_2$$; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 000_2$$

## Control instructions; B type

BEQ

Branch on equality.

B type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 000_2$$

BNE

Branch on inequality.

B type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 001_2$$

BLT

Branch on rs1 < rs2.

• BGT synthesized by reversing operands.

B type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 100_2$$

BLTU

Branch on rs1 < rs2; unsigned.

• BGTU synthesized by reversing operands.

B type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 110_2$$

BGE

Branch on rs1 > rs2.

• BLE synthesized by reversing operands.

B type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 101_2$$

BGEU

Branch on rs1 > rs2; unsigned.

• BLEU synthesized by reversing operands.

B type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 111_2$$

## Memory access instructions

The execution environment interface defines whether memory is little-endian or big-endian. Endianness is byte-address invariant; if a byte is stored to some address in some endianness, a byte-sized load from that address in any endianness restores that value.

Naturally aligned loads and stores are guaranteed to be atomic.

For I type load instructions, $$\mathrm{opcode} = 0000011_2$$.

LW

I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 010_2$$

LH

Loads 16-bit value from memory; value is sign-extended to 32 bits.

I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 001_2$$

LHU

Loads 16-bit value from memory; value is zero-extended to 32 bits.

I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 101_2$$

LB

Same as LH, but loads 8-bit value.

I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 000_2$$

LBU

Same as LHU, but loads 8-bit value.

I type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 100_2$$

### Store instructions

For S type store instructions, $$\mathrm{opcode} = 0100011_2$$.

SW

Stores 32-bit value to memory.

S type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 010_2$$

SH

Stores 16-bit value to memory.

S type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 001_2$$

SB

Stores 8-bit value to memory.

S type; $$\mathrm{funct3} = 000_2$$

## Memory ordering instructions

FENCE

Orders device I/O and memory access as viewed by other harts, external devices, or coprocessors. Immediate value encodes various aspects of the ordering. Register fields are currently unused and reserved for future use.

I type; $$\mathrm{opcode} = 0001111_2$$

## Environment call and breakpoints

These are SYSTEM instructions. For I type SYSTEM instructions, $$\mathrm{opcode} = 1110011_2$$. The immediate value encodes the type of the instruction.

ECALL

System call.

I type; $$\mathrm{funct7} = 000000000000$$; other bits 0

EBREAK

Break to debugger.

I type; $$\mathrm{funct7} = 000000000001$$; other bits 0

## Hint instructions

HINT instructions do not affect visible architectural state. They are encoded as integer instructions with x0 as the destination register.

No HINT instructions are currently defined. Specific encodings are reserved for standard and custom hints for use in the future.